UNIX permissions can send you around the twist sometimes. You can set them up to do anything, not. Here’s a good case in point…
Imagine you have Samba set up to provide users with a home directory. This is a useful feature; if you log in to the server with the name “fred” you (and only you) will see a network share called “fred”, which contains the files in your UNIX/Linux home directory. This is great for knowledgeable computer types, but is it such a great idea for normal lusers? If you’re running IMAP email it’s going to expose your mail directory, .forward and a load of other files that Windoze users might delete on a whim, and really screw things up.
Is there a Samba option to share home directories but to leave certain subdirectories alone? No. Can you just change the ownership and permissions of the critical files to root and deny write access? No! (Because mail systems require such files to be owned by their user for security reasons). Can you use permission bits or even an ACL? Possibly, but you’ll go insane trying.
A bit of lateral thinking is called for here. Let’s start with the standard section in smb.conf for creating automatic shares for home directories:
[homes] comment = Home Directories browseable = no writable = yes
The “homes” section is special – the name “homes” is reserved to make it so. Basically it auto-creates a share with a name matching the user when someone logs in, so that they can get to their home directory.
First off, you could make it non-writable (i.e. set writable = no). Not much use to use luser, but it does the job of stopping them deleting anything. If read-only access is good enough, it’s an option.
The next idea, if you want it to be useful, is to use the directive “hide dot files” in the definition. This basically returns files beginning in a ‘.’ as “hidden” to Windoze users, hiding the UNIX user configuration files and other stuff you don’t want deleted. Unfortunately the “mail” directory, containing all your loverly IMAP folders is still available for wonton destruction, but you can hide this too by renaming it .mail. All you then need to do is tell your mail server to use the new name. For example, in dovecot.conf, uncomment and edit the line thus:
mail_location = mbox:~/.mail/:INBOX=/var/mail/%u
(Note the ‘.’ added at the front of ~/mail/)
You then have to rename each of the user’s “mail” folders to “.mail”, restart dovecot and the job is done.
Except when you have lusers who have turned on the “Show Hidden Files” option in Windoze, of course. A surprising number seem to think this is a good idea. You could decide that hidden files allows advanced users control of their mail and configuration, and anyone messing with a hidden file can presumably be trusted to know what you’re doing. You could even mess with Windoze policies to stop them doing this (ha!). Or you may take the view that all lusers and dangerous and if there is a way to mess things up, they’ll find it and do it. In this case, here’s Plan B.
The trick is to know that the default path to shares in [homes] is ‘~’, but you can actually override this! For example:
[homes] path = /usr/data/flubnutz ...
This maps users’ home directories in a single directory called ‘flubnutz’. This is not that useful, and I haven’t even bothered to try it myself. When it becomes interesting is when you can add a macro to the path name. %S is a good one to use because it’s the name as the user who has logged in (the service name). %u, likewise. You can then do stuff like:
[homes] path = /usr/samba-files/%S ....
This stores the user’s home directory files in a completely different location, in a directory matching their name. If you prefer to keep the user’s account files together (like a sensible UNIX admin) you can use:
[homes] comment = Home Directories path = /usr/home/%S/samba-files browseable = no writable = yes<
As you can imagine, this stores their Windows home directory files in a sub-directory to their home directory; one which they can’t escape from. You have to create “~/samba-files” and give them ownership of it for this to work. If you don’t want to use the explicit path, %h/samba-files should do instead.
I’ve written a few scripts to create directories and set permissions, which I might add to this if anyone expresses an interest.